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Linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn some common linking words to express reasons and results.
Linking Words: Reasons
Because / Because of
The difference between these two words is that because is followed by a subject + verb, and because of is followed by a noun:
- The game was canceled because of the rain.
- The game was canceled because it was raining.
In spoken English, many people say ’cause as a short form of “because.”
Due to / Owing to
Due to and owing to are also followed by a noun. These words are a little more formal.
- There’s a lot of traffic today due to the upcoming holiday.
(holiday = noun)
- The after-school program was canceled owing to lack of interest from the students.
(lack = noun)
Due to the fact that / Owing to the fact that
Use these phrases before a subject + verb. Again, these phrases are a little more formal.
- Many people are still unemployed due to the fact that the economic recovery has been slower than anticipated.
- The publisher rejected the author’s latest work owing to the fact that the manuscript was full of errors.
Since / As
Since and as are more informal, and they are followed by a subject + verb.
- I’m going to bed at 10 PM since I need to get up early tomorrow morning.
- I didn’t go to the gym today, as I had a lot of homework to do.
Linking Words: Results
Therefore / Consequently / As a result
These words are more formal, and are more commonly used in written English.
- Our company’s profits have increased 150% in the past year. Therefore, we’re going to invest in new equipment and training programs.
- The tennis player had knee surgery mid-October; consequently, she took the rest of the season off.
- There have been heavy rains throughout the interior of the state. As a result, several areas have experienced flooding.
“So” is more informal, and more commonly used in spoken English.
- We were hungry, so we stopped at a cafe for a snack.