Linking Words: Reasons and Results

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Linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn some common linking words to express reasons and results.

Linking Words: Reasons

Because / Because of

The difference between these two words is that because is followed by a subject + verb, and because of is followed by a noun:

  • The game was canceled because of the rain.
  • The game was canceled because it was raining.

In spoken English, many people say ’cause as a short form of “because.”

Due to / Owing to

Due to and owing to are also followed by a noun. These words are a little more formal.

  • There’s a lot of traffic today due to the upcoming holiday.
    (holiday = noun)
  • The after-school program was canceled owing to lack of interest from the students.
    (lack = noun)

Due to the fact that / Owing to the fact that

Use these phrases before a subject + verb. Again, these phrases are a little more formal.

  • Many people are still unemployed due to the fact that the economic recovery has been slower than anticipated.
  • The publisher rejected the author’s latest work owing to the fact that the manuscript was full of errors.

Since / As

Since and as are more informal, and they are followed by a subject + verb.

  • I’m going to bed at 10 PM since I need to get up early tomorrow morning.
  • I didn’t go to the gym today, as I had a lot of homework to do.

Linking Words: Results

Therefore / Consequently / As a result

These words are more formal, and are more commonly used in written English.

  • Our company’s profits have increased 150% in the past year. Therefore, we’re going to invest in new equipment and training programs.
  • The tennis player had knee surgery mid-October; consequently, she took the rest of the season off.
  • There have been heavy rains throughout the interior of the state. As a result, several areas have experienced flooding.


“So” is more informal, and more commonly used in spoken English.

  • We were hungry, so we stopped at a cafe for a snack.

Learn more: Linking verbs

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